Sokoto State in its present form came into being in October 1996 when Zamfara State was created by the, then Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the Arm Forces, Federal Republic of Nigeria, General Sani Abacha GCFR.
With a land area of 28,232.37sq kilometer, Sokoto State is located between longitudes 11o 30` to 13o 50` East and latitude 4o to 6o North. It is bordered in the North by Niger Republic, Zamfara State to the East and Kebbi State to the South and West.
In terms of vegetation, the State falls within the savannah zone. This is an open Tsetse fly free grassland suitable for cultivation of grain crops and animal husbandry. Rainfall starts late and ends early with mean annual falls ranging between 50mm to 1,300mm. There are two major seasons in the State namely; wet and dry. The dry season starts from October and lasts up to April in some parts but may extend to May or June in other parts. The wet season on the other hand, begins in most part of the State in May and lasts up to September or October.
The Harmattan, a dry, cold and dusty wind is experienced in the State between November and February. Heat is more severe in the State in March and April. But the weather in the State is always cold in the morning and hot in the afternoon except at the peak of harmattan.
The areas of present Sokoto State was home of many empires and kingdoms of the pre-colonial Western Sudan, these include Gobir and Kebbi Kingdoms as well as the World renowned Sokoto caliphate which spiritual and political capital is the Headquarter of the State.
Following the conquest of the Caliphate by the British in 1903, its various components were made autonomous and joined into the Government of Northern Nigeria. The Northern Region was thus made up of mainly parts of Sokoto Caliphate and Kanem-Bornu Empire. This continued up to January 1967 when States were created to replace regional Governments by General Yakubu Gowon. Sokoto became the Headquarters of the North-Western State created in 1967. In 1976 following the creation of Niger State out of North Western State, Sokoto State emerged with its headquarter yet in Sokoto.
Kebbi and Zamfara States were curved out of Sokoto, in 1991 and 1996 respectively. Sokoto metropolis has thus been the Capital of various Governments since its establishment by Caliph Muhammadu Bello in 1809.
According to the provisional figures of the 2006 National Population Census, Sokoto State has population of 3,696,99 people made up of principally of two major groups namely; Hausa and Fulani. There are of course the Zabarmawa and Tuareg minority in the border Local Government Areas.
All these groups speak Hausa as common language. Fulfulde is spoken by the Fulani. Hausa people in the State are made up of Gobirawa, Zamfarawa, Kabawa, Adarawa and Arawa. The Fulani on the other hand are of two main groups: the town Fulani and the nomads. The former includes the Toronkawa, the clan of Shehu Usman Danfodiyo, Sullubawa and Zoramawa. The Toronkawa are the Aristocratic class since 1804.
Other Nigerian tribes also live peacefully with the citizens of the State, devoid of any form of harassment or molestation.
Culturally, the State is homogenous. The people of the State are predominantly Muslims and Islamic religion provides them with a code of conduct and behaviour. Two major festivals namely Eid-el-Fitr and Eid-el-Kabir are celebrated in the State every year. The former marks the end of Ramadan fasting while the latter features slaughter of rams in commemoration of the act started by Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) peace be unto him thousand years ago.
Traditional wrestling (Kokawa) and boxing (Dambe) are the two sports enjoyed by the Hausa people while the Fulani and the Sullubawa entertain themselves with shoro and Doro respectively. Important visitors to the State are usually treated to a Grand or mini-Durbar, an event involving the parade of heavily decorated horses and camels mounted by men in full Traditional Military and Cultural attires.
Over eighty percent (80%) of the inhabitants of Sokoto State practice one form of agriculture or the other. They produce crops such as millets, guinea-corn, maize, rice, potatoes, cassava, groundnut and beans for subsistence and produce wheat, cotton, tobaco and vegetable for cash. Local craft such as blacksmithing, weaving, dying, carving and leather works also pay an important role in the economic life of the people of the State. The State is one of the fish producing areas of the Country. Thus a large number of people along the River basins engaged in this fishing activities.
Sokoto State is equally endowed with natural and mineral resources. Agro-allied industries using cotton, groundnut, sorghum, maize, rice, wheat, sugar cane, cassava, gum arabic and tobacco as raw materials can be established in the State. Large-scale farming can also be practiced in the State using irrigation water from Goronyo Dam, Lugu, Kalmalo, Wamakko and Kwakwazo lakes among others.
Minerals such as Kaolin, Gypsum limestone, laterite, Red mills, Phosphate, both yellow and green shade clay, sand etc. are available in the State in commercial quantities. Mineral based industries, using these raw materials could be established in the State.The Tsetse-free-open-grassland has made animal husbandry a very lucrative venture in the State. There are all kinds of animals both wild and domestic in the State. Sokoto ranks second in Livestock production in the country with animal population of well over eight (8) million.The availability of these economic potentials provide good investment opportunities, particularly in agro-allied industries such as flour mills, tomato processing , sugar refining, textiles, glue, tanning, fish canning, dairy etc. That is why the 23 Local Government Headquarters in the State have been connected to the National grid.